Interoperability key for LTE and eHRPD hybrid networking

In the early stage of LTE deployment, most of them adopt the hybrid 3G network. In the case of incomplete LTE coverage, LTE and 3G data service interoperability solutions can effectively reduce LTE investment, ensure LTE user data service experience, and protect 3G network investment. At present, 3G HRPD (High Speed ​​Packet Network) cannot directly perform data service interoperation switching with LTE, and needs to be upgraded to eHRPD (Evolved High Speed ​​Packet Network).

3G network eHRPD upgrade

eHRPD is an evolution and enhancement of the original HRPD. eHRPD enhances the ability of the 3G network to carry data services, improves the network convergence mode, enables more rational use of resources, and has less change to the wireless side. The eHRPD network architecture can be divided into three types: non-roaming network architecture, Home Routed scenario during roaming, and Local Breakout scenario network architecture. From HRPD to eHRPD, the relevant network elements need to be upgraded, including AN/PCF upgrade to eAN/ePCF, PDSN upgrade to HSGW (HRPD Serving Gateway), and upgrade base station BTS software to support eHRPD.

The advantages of eHRPD include: support interoperability with LTE data services, and use the same core network as LTE to facilitate maintenance and management and reduce operating costs. The new features of the eHRPD include: supporting the terminal UE to establish multiple PDN connections at the same time, supporting the network side to initiate QoS, and supporting bearer multiplexing; eHRPD is compatible with HRPD, and has no effect on the original user; the eHRPD new user needs to update the terminal and the SIM card.

eHRPD interoperates with LTE data services

Mobile data service QoS requirements

There are many types of mobile data services, and the quality of service required for various services is also different. Service quality QoS mainly includes indicators such as bit error rate, delay, throughput, reliability and security. According to different characteristics of QoS, data services can be classified into session class, streaming media class, interaction class, and background class service.

(1) Conversation-type services: It is required to ensure the time correlation between information entities in the traditional mode, and strictly requires low latency, for example, the IM service interaction delay is <200 ms, and the online game delay is <20 ms.

(2) Streaming media service: guarantees a certain time correlation between information entities of the media stream, usually requiring a delay of less than 5s, for example, streaming media playback requires a delay of <1s.

(3) Interactive service: The request response mode is adopted to ensure the integrity of the data. The total loopback delay cannot be too large, usually in the range of 1 to 4 s. For example, the page browsing delay is <1 s, and the microblog interaction delay is < 3s.

(4) Back-end service: It is required to ensure the integrity of the data, and the data transmission and reception time is relatively low. For example, the background email delay can be >10s.

LTE and eHRPD interoperate

Bidirectional switching between LTE and eHRPD is defined in the current 3GPP standard, including optimized and non-optimized switching of active/sleep states. One-way handover of LTE to eHRPD (including optimized and non-optimized handover including active state/sleep state) and idle state non-optimized handover from eHRPD to LTE are defined in the 3GPP2 standard.

The interworking of data services between LTE and eHRPD requires consideration of the impact of handover delay. The optimized switching delay can be less than 1 second, but the implementation is more complicated, and the S101 and S103 interfaces need to be added. The non-optimized handover handover delay is 6-8s, and the S101 and S103 interfaces are not used. The tunneled signaling is not used between the target access network and the original service network.

eHRPD evolution strategy

In the initial stage of LTE network deployment, the LTE and 3G data services are interoperated. In order to save LTE investment and ensure LTE user perception, the original HRPD network should be upgraded to the eHRPD network to implement interoperability between LTE and 3G data services. The evolution of the HRPD network to the eHRPD network needs to meet the continuity of the data service bearer according to the deployment of the LTE. The migration of HRPD users to LTE/eHRPD users has a long process. In order to protect the HRPD network investment and not affect the existing HRPD service usage, it is necessary to ensure the smooth evolution of the HRPD network to eHRPD. In the 3GPP2 standard, the eHRPD network and the EPC network tend to be unified, and the upgrade deployment of HRPD network elements (such as PDSN/HSGW, HA/PGW) and the introduction of new functions (PCC architecture, QoS control, multiple PDN, etc.) need to be taken into account. Consider the evolutionary architecture of the next generation of mobile networks.

In the early stage of LTE deployment, the original HRPD network part can be upgraded to the eHRPD network, and the LTE and eHRPD core networks are newly built and superimposed with the HRPD core network. The LTE/eHRPD dual-mode terminal users are less.

In the middle of LTE deployment, with the expansion of the LTE network, all the original HRPD networks are upgraded to eHRPD networks to meet the interoperability requirements of LTE data services, and the HRPD and eHRPD network elements are integrated. For example, HSWG/ PDSN, vigorously develop LTE/eHRPD dual-mode terminal users.

In the initial stage of LTE network deployment, the LTE and 3G data services are interoperated. In order to save LTE investment and ensure LTE user perception, the original HRPD network should be upgraded to the eHRPD network to implement interoperability between LTE and 3G data services. The eHRPD network evolution needs to comprehensively consider the deployment tempo of LTE. Currently, the handover delay between eHRPD and LTE still needs to be improved.

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