The drone, referred to as the "unmanned aerial vehicle", is a non-manned aircraft operated by radio remote control equipment and its own program control device. UAVs are actually the collective name of unmanned aerial vehicles. They can be divided into technical categories: unmanned helicopters, unmanned fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned multi-rotor aircraft, unmanned airships, and unmanned paragliders. .
There is no cockpit on the aircraft, but there are equipment such as autopilot and program control devices. Ground, ship or remote control station personnel track, locate, remotely control, telemetry and digitally transmit through radar and other equipment.
Compared with the manned aircraft, it has the advantages of small size, low cost, convenient use, low requirements for the operational environment, and strong survivability on the battlefield. Since drones are of great significance for future air combat, major military countries around the world are stepping up their development of drones.
The application of automation in aircraft driving is another major technological advancement after people fly into the sky. A drone is a non-manned aircraft that is controlled by radio remote control or by its own program. Because he is a concentrated carrier of high-tech technology, it is mainly used in modern warfare.
Modern warfare has been an organic cooperation between tanks, artillery, planes, and warships, and a three-dimensional war between the open space and the sea. Its advanced technology, lethality and danger are unprecedented. The drone is characterized by its small size, light weight, good maneuverability, long flight time and easy concealment. Especially because it is unmanned, it is especially suitable for carrying out dangerous tasks, so it is playing in modern warfare. More and more important. For example, in the Battle of the Bekaa Valley in 1982 and the Gulf War that erupted in 1991, drones played an extremely important role in reconnaissance and surveillance, interference with enemy radar communication systems, and guiding their own offensive weapons.development path
The birth of the drone dates back to 1914. At that time, the First World War was in full swing. The two generals of Germany, Kader and Piccher, made a proposal to the British Military Aviation Society to develop a small aircraft that was operated by radio without humans. It can fly over a target area of â€‹â€‹the enemy and cast a bomb that was previously loaded on a small plane. This bold idea was immediately appreciated by Sir David Henderson, then chairman of the British Military Aviation Society. He appointed Professor AM Luo to lead a group of people to develop.
The initial development was carried out in a place called Brooklands. For confidentiality, the program was named "AT Plan." After several trials, the development team first developed a radio remote control device. Aircraft designer Jeffrey De Havilland designed a small upper monoplane. The development team installed the radio remote control on the small aircraft but did not install the bomb. In March 1917, at the end of the First World War, the worldâ€™s first drone piloted the first flight test at the Royal Flying Training School. However, shortly after the plane took off, the engine suddenly turned off and the plane crashed due to stall. Soon after, the development team developed a second drone for testing. The aircraft flew smoothly for a period of time under the control of the radio. Just as everyone celebrated the test successfully, the engine of the small plane suddenly turned off. The drone that lost power was planted into the crowd.
The failure of the two trials made the development team very frustrated, and the "AT Plan" ended. However, Professor AM Luo did not lose heart and continued to develop the drone. Hard work pays off, and 10 years later, he finally succeeded. In 1927, the "throat" single-wing drone developed by Professor AM Luo successfully carried out a test flight on the British Navy "Fortress" warship. The aircraft carried 113 kilograms of bombs and flew 480 kilometers at a speed of 322 kilometers per hour. The advent of the "throat" drone caused great sensation in the world at the time.
Almost at the same time, the Royal Air Force has also developed several different types of drones, including gyroscope-controlled aerial drones, radio-controlled, torpedo-equipped drones, and even unmanned Attack aircraft. But after trial and error, the Royal Air Force finally decided to make a drone controlled by a gyroscope. This drone can be used both as a target and as a bomb. Later, the Royal Air Force improved the drone with a pre-programmed radio remote control and a high-powered engine that increased the speed of the drone to 310 kilometers per hour. The Royal Air Force has built a total of 12 such drones, named "Larex", which have also been loaded with artillery and successfully tested from warships and ground bases.Practical development of drones
With the gradual maturity of drone technology, in the 1930s, the British government decided to develop an unmanned drone for the inspection of the effects of artillery on battleships on drone aircraft. In January 1933, the "Ferrell Queens" drone converted from the "Ferrell" seaplane was successfully tested. Shortly thereafter, the United Kingdom developed a two-wing unmanned drone with an all-wood structure named "De Havilland Moth". Asked from 1934 to 1943, the United Kingdom produced a total of 420 such drones and renamed them "Bee King."
The British have made the first step in the development of drones, and the Americans are not far behind. As early as 1915, the United States' Sperry and Delco had developed the first drone. The drone has a total weight of only 272 kilograms and is powered by a 30-kilowatt piston engine mounted on a 4-wheel block with slide rails on the grass. After the aircraft is launched, the pulley is driven to slide on the slide rails. After reaching a certain speed, the airplane flies off the skid and goes up to the sky, then a simple gyroscope device controls the flight direction, and a bellows pressure gauge automatically controls the flying height. In 1915, the drone, dubbed the "air torpedo", successfully carried out the test flight and was successfully tested for the target with 136 kilograms of explosives.
Shortly thereafter, the US Army's Charles F. Kettering developed a drone and named it "Kettering." The aircraft is similar to the ordinary two-wing aircraft, with a total weight of 238.5 kilograms, can carry 82 kilograms of bombs, and the flight speed reaches 88 kilometers per hour. In September 1918, the US Army began testing the "Kettering Fly" and finally sent it to the sky on October 22.
In the 1930s, an American aviation expert named Reginald Delhi developed a radio remote control for the US Army. In 1939, the United States developed an upper-wing UAV, named RP-4.
In 1941, the Pearl Harbor incident broke out. Due to the needs of the war, the US Army and the Navy began to order a large number of target aircraft, including 984 OQ-2A target aircraft, 9403 OQ-3 target aircraft, and 3548 OQ-13 target aircraft. The latter two types of target aircraft are equipped with high-powered engines, flying at speeds of up to 225 kilometers per hour and flying altitudes of up to 3,000 meters.
In the Second World War, the US Army Air Force used a large number of unmanned drones and used a piston engine drone carrying heavy bombs on the Pacific battlefield to bomb the Japanese targets. During the war, the US military also planned to convert the scrapped B-17 and B-24 bombers into remote-controlled bombers carrying bombs. The pilot first drives the remote-controlled bomber to the beach, then jumps off the parachute, and the remote-controlled bomber continues to fly under the radio's remote control until the target is attacked. Unfortunately, due to the huge budget and the complexity of the maneuvering technology, the US military finally gave up the development plan. During this period, the US Navy also developed three jet drones, named "Glauber", "Fugen", and "Gagler", but for various reasons, they were not officially equipped.
After the end of World War II, with the rapid development of aviation technology, the drone family has gradually entered its heyday. Today, nearly 100 types of UAVs have been developed and produced in the world, and some new models are under development. With the development of computer technology, autonomous driving technology and remote telemetry technology and its application in UAVs, and with the deepening of tactical research on UAVs, UAVs have become more and more widely used in military applications. "All-rounder in the air", "airborne pride".
An unmanned aerial vehicle named "Falcon HTV-2" can achieve 20 times the speed of sound. It is expected that it will reach the Lohan Cnc in New York from less than 12 minutes at this speed, and normal flights will normally fly. It takes at least 5 hours.
The Falcon HTV-2 will be launched by a rocket and glided to the ground at 13,000 miles per hour. The previous test flight lasted only 9 minutes, and due to technical difficulties, it landed in a safe way of intentional collision. The test flight was very successful, refreshing a new sub-orbital space flight and preparing for the creation of a new generation of super weapons. If the weather is good, the Falcon HTV-2 will be launched in the United States at the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California and will be launched by the Air Force's Minotaur IV rocket.
The project was jointly developed by the Pentagon and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and is part of a new generation of supersonic weapons that strike faster than rockets. The US military hopes that this new drone will ensure that terrorists or exile governments anywhere in the world can be attacked within an hour. This attack capability is called the Conventional Timed Global Strike System (CPGS).
In the first test flight conducted in April 2010, engineers from the US Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency did not accurately detect any problems. Some people speculate that the aircraft may be overheated while on the plane. For the second test task, a series of adjustments have been made, including: changing the center of gravity and lowering the angle of descent.
Dave Neyland, director of the Planning and Tactics Strategy Office of the Drone Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, said: "We will focus on some of the challenges, such as continuous supersonic missions. We need to improve our technical knowledge. To promote the development of ultra-supersonic technology in the future. We obtained valuable information from the first flight and made some adjustments based on the findings of the Engineering Review Committee, which will help to improve the second flight test. We are now ready to go all out. Item test."
On March 17, 2005, Honeywell International announced that it has received a system engineering contract to analyze the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) and the Army Future Combat System ( FCS) Differences between first-class UAV systems.
Honeywell International's FCS Tier 1 UAV System Project Manager Steve McKnight said that as part of the DARPA Advanced Concept Technology Verification Program, Honeywell International has developed MAV. This contract is another milestone for Honeywell, reflecting the fact that the Army has begun to develop MAV technology variants for the battlefield.
Boeing and Scientific Applications International is the leading system integrator for FCS. Honeywell said its contract with the leading systems integrator includes a feasibility study of the MAV retrofit, as well as video and infrared cameras that the drone can carry.
The MAV is equipped with front and down video cameras that transmit information to remote ground station video terminals. Honeywell's modified drones will be equipped with infrared cameras. The drone is designed to provide soldiers with improved situational awareness to protect them from enemy gunshots. This drone will be used for reconnaissance, security and target search for open, undulating, complex and urban terrain. With vertical ups and downs, they can fly under trees, under clouds, and in the jungle.
FCS will use advanced communications and technology to link warriors with people and unmanned ground and aerial platforms and sensors. The FCS allows troops to move quickly and perform a variety of tasks. Main features of drones
Drone as a target
"Global Hawk" drone This is the original use of the drone, which can be used for the testing and training of ground air defense and air combat weapons. For example, the MD2R5 target machine developed by Northrop Corporation of the United States has a maximum flying height of 8,250 meters and can be equipped with infrared tracer and radar signals.
Drone boosters can also be used as targets for artillery and missiles. Ryan's BQM-34 target aircraft has a flight speed of Mach 1.5 and a flying height of 18,300 meters. It can be used to simulate enemy fighters. In the face of the growing threat of anti-ship missiles, the US Navy has also developed the BQM-74C sea-skiing drone for the evaluation of shipborne anti-missile systems.
Drone reconnaissance surveillance
This is also one of the earliest uses of drones. The unmanned reconnaissance plane can go deep into the front of the position and one hundred and two kilometers behind the enemy, or even further. It relies on on-board visible light cameras, movie cameras, standard or low-light TV cameras, infrared scanners and radar to perform a variety of reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. Generally speaking, a drone can carry one or several reconnaissance equipment, work according to a predetermined procedure or ground instructions, and finally transmit the obtained information and images back to the ground for use by relevant departments; All the information obtained is recorded and taken once at the time of drone recovery. With the development and application of high-tech, the performance of equipment on drones is also constantly improving. At the same time, some new equipment has been added, and the scope of application has been further expanded. After equipped with the Global Positioning System (GPS), the drone can be used with reconnaissance satellites and manned reconnaissance aircraft to form a high-, medium-, low-altitude, multi-level, multi-directional three-dimensional aerial reconnaissance and surveillance network, so that the obtained intelligence information More accurate and reliable.
Drone scam enemy bait
The use of drones to attract enemy firepower or the entire air defense system to destroy or destroy them is a new use for drones in the last decade or two. The main mission of the drone as a bait is to cooperate with other electronic reconnaissance equipment to detect fraud; or as a penetration tool to provide air defense suppression for manned aircraft; or to cooperate with anti-radiation weapons to suppress and destroy enemy air defense systems . For this reason, this type of drone is different from other drones. In order to improve the deception effect as a bait, it is often necessary to take some measures, such as special design, and install appropriate electronic equipment to have the same maneuverability and signal characteristics as the target to be simulated; The source device increases the radar reflection area of â€‹â€‹the drone; installs a radio frequency amplification device to enhance the radar reflection signal. In short, it is to do everything possible to make it easy for the enemy to find it and attract the attention of the enemy. Generally speaking, when performing a decoy mission, the decoy drone first simulates a manned aircraft for tactical flight over the forward position, stimulating or inducing the radar in the enemy air defense weapon system to start, and then the reconnaissance equipment takes the opportunity to complete the reconnaissance mission. When used as a penetration tool, the drone will reach the target area protected by the enemy air defense system from the side of the attacking aircraft group, confuse the enemy radar and consume enemy air defense weapons. These drones are highly deceptive due to the use of measures such as increasing the radar cross-sectional area and signal strength. The enemy's radar will first intercept these false targets, but it is difficult to identify, leading to the transmission of these erroneous intelligence to the enemy fire control radar system and air defense weapons. In this way, on the one hand, the enemy air defense radar network can consume a lot of time in dealing with these fake targets. On the other hand, the enemy weapon system will fire or launch missiles to consume air defense firepower, thereby reducing the threat to its own attack aircraft. It turns out that the bait drone has played a very important role in several local wars. For example, in the fourth Middle East War in 1973, Israel used the US "small" small drone as a bait to deceive enemy air defense fire and cover its own aircraft attack. According to reports, there was a drone that induced 32 "Sam" missiles to launch. Subsequently, the Israeli F-4 fighter and the A-4 attack aircraft followed closely and successfully completed the attack on the Egyptian positions.
Drone implementation interference
The system interferes, causing its communication to be interrupted and the command to fail. The trend is to develop both interfering radar and interference communications simultaneously. Since it is unlikely that all radars in the enemy area will be completely interfered with, the information about the target obtained by the uninterrupted radar can be transmitted to the interfered radar position via the communication line. Therefore, only when interfering with the radar and simultaneously interfering with the communication system can the enemy anti-aircraft artillery and missile positions fail to obtain the required intelligence information. To this end, a drone can be equipped with two or more types of interference equipment at the same time, and can be flexibly used as needed; or between two or more different types of drones or drones and electronic warfare aircraft. Coordinated operations. The "Monarch" system developed by the United Kingdom is a comprehensive system that uses multiple unmanned aerial vehicles to carry electronic reconnaissance equipment, radar jamming equipment and communication jamming equipment, and fly to the enemy's position to perform electronic warfare missions. In the photoelectric countermeasures, the potential of the drone is also very striking. It can be equipped with a smoke device to disintegrate the attack of the enemy's photoelectric guided weapon. It can also be equipped with a flashlight as an infrared bait to deflect the enemy's infrared. Guided weapons; it can also be used to accurately carry the tracer carried to the desired position with its flexibility and long-lasting time.
Drone ground attack
As an airborne vehicle, the drone can also carry a variety of ground attack weapons, fly to the front line or deep into the enemy-occupied area to attack the ground military targets; it can use air-to-ground missiles or bombs against enemy air defense weapons. Compression is carried out; tanks or tanks are attacked with anti-tank missiles, etc.; and ground force assembly points are bombarded with weapons such as cluster bombs. Especially worth mentioning is the anti-radiation attack drone. This is a weapon system that uses electromagnetic waves radiated by enemy radar to detect, track, and eventually destroy the radar. It can be used not only to attack enemy radars, jammers and other radiation sources, but also to use high-speed anti-radiation drones with equipment such as composite guidance devices. It can also be used to attack enemy early warning aircraft and special electronic interference aircraft. The American "Brave" 200 and the German KDAR are anti-radar drones. The KDAR is in the form of a tailless, cross-shaped wing that can be folded into a standard container of 6.1 cubic meters. The container is both a storage and transport package and a launcher, each of which can hold 20 KDAR drones.
Mainly used for fire guidance and evaluation of shooting effects. The "Goshawk" produced by Lockheed is such a drone. It is equipped with a range finder. Auto-tracking TV cameras, laser pointers and thermal imagers can transmit position correction commands to the ground through an anti-jamming data link, which can be used to indicate targets for "copper snake" laser guided projectiles and airborne "Haierfa" anti-tank missiles.
Drone communication relay
Unmanned aerial vehicles such as the US "Pioneer" UAVs are equipped with anti-interference spread spectrum communication equipment, high-power solid-state amplifiers, omni-directional VHF and UHF radio relay equipment, etc. Signal, voice and image communication, communication distance is 185 km. In addition to the above seven functions, the drone has features that other aircraft do not have. First, the cost is low. The cost of drones is usually between tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of dollars. Compared with manned aircraft, the price gap is very different, equivalent to 1/100 to 1/1000 of a manned aircraft. The drone operator only needs half a year of regular training, and the pilot who trains a manned aircraft must have more than 4 years of specialized training and is costly. When a drone performs the same task as a manned machine, it consumes a relatively small amount of fuel, usually only 1% of the manned machine. The second is good concealment and strong survivability. The length of the drone is basically less than 10 meters, and the weight is mostly between 1 and 2 tons. Therefore, it is very light and free in the air, and it is difficult to find its whereabouts in various detector materials. The third is easy to use and adaptable. The drone can be lifted off at close range or launched directly; it can take off on the road or take off on the beach or in the desert, so it can be widely used on the front line. The recycling of drones is also very convenient. It can be recovered by parachute and blocking nets, or by landing gear, skid, and belly landing. For example, Canada's CL-227 "Sentinel" drone can also take off and land like a helicopter. In addition, the drone can adapt to various environments, can enter and exit the contaminated area of â€‹â€‹nuclear and chemical weapons without any scruples, and can fly continuously under various complicated meteorological conditions.
Drone transport capacity
According to foreign reports, the Russian "Ennis" company announced that it will develop a new generation of drones for the Russian Ministry of Defense.
It is reported that the new drone can be used to correct the angle of mortar and artillery fire, and can be used for terrain photography reconnaissance and other tasks, as well as the ability to transport military materials under informatized combat conditions.
The United States is also studying the transport of drones.
Drones monitor security conditions
According to a report by The Lens, New Orleans city officials applied for the use of the US Department of Homeland Security's drones in February to protect the security of the area. The Lens said a New Orleans official has been very interested in acquiring driverless technology. According to reports, city officials and the local drone manufacturers held two meetings, hope to officially put the drone into New Orleans.
Drone rescue application
After the earthquake in Yingjiang, Yunnan Province on March 10, 2011, the surveying and mapping emergency vehicle loaded with the low-altitude drone aerial photography system rushed to Yingjiang County to carry out the unmanned aerial vehicle aerial mission. On the morning of March 11, the first unmanned aircraft took off smoothly in Yingjiang County at 9:00, and carried out aerial photography for 50 minutes throughout the disaster area. It successfully acquired the first batch of 20 square meters after the earthquake in Yingjiang disaster area. Meters, more than 1,000 high-resolution aerial images of 0.1 meters. On the afternoon of March 11, the unmanned aircraft took off again and successfully obtained the second batch of aerial image data and returned it to Beijing in the first time.
From the Wenchuan earthquake to the Zhouqu mudslide, the use of unmanned aircraft to obtain images of the disaster area is becoming an important means of emergency response for disaster mapping. So, where is the advantage of drones? Why do you need to obtain aerial images in the first place after the disaster? The reporter interviewed the relevant person in charge of Beijing Tianxiatu Group, who was assigned to take over the emergency unit of the Yunnan Yingjiang earthquake drone.
â€œImage maps can be used to make disaster assessment and reconstruction decisions more intuitively than other observation methods.â€ Mr. Guan Hongliang, the UAV expert of the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping and the chairman of Beijing Tianxiatu Group, said in an interview.
It is understood that the Beijing Tianxiatu Group, which is the only aerial surveillance mission approved by the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, is the pilot unit of the national â€œHigh-resolution Aerial Image Databaseâ€. The independent brand â€œWorld Galleryâ€ has formed the largest and most diverse category in China. The all-terrain, state-of-the-art, fastest-responding and highest-resolution Earth observation system is the only aeronautical image library that is built by the autonomous flight mode and covers a national high resolution of 5-50 cm.
The person in charge of the map said that the biggest advantage of the drone is that it can fly at low altitude and obtain image data under the harsh natural conditions with simple conditions. The world map already has a complete flight flight system such as image acquisition, image processing and image generation. It can fly to many places in a short time to meet various emergency mapping and accurate mapping requirements.
Zhao Xingtao, head of the UAV department of Tianxiatu Group, said that there are 15 emergency centers in the country, except for a few areas, which can reach all parts of the country in 24 hours. Especially for areas where earthquakes, mudslides, etc. may suddenly occur, the construction of emergency centers has been strengthened. After the Yingjiang earthquake, the emergency center in Yunnan rushed to the scene to start operations.
â€œWe were the first aerial team to arrive in the disaster area. Although the conditions were bad, after the shooting was completed, after data processing, the image map of the disaster area was quickly spliced â€‹â€‹in 3 hours.â€ Zhao Xingtao said that such a quick response is related. The department's disaster analysis and judgment provide timely and effective decision-making reference.
The person in charge of the map said that the acquired aerial image data needs subsequent processing to finally form the final full picture, and the â€œpixel factoryâ€ of the world map can batch process the acquired images, which not only shortens the time, but also has low cost and fully automatic operation. The efficiency of emergency mapping support has been greatly improved.
"We not only have close cooperation with relevant ministries, but also respond to the first time, work in the first time, and we have detailed plans for emergency response to emergencies, using our drones and advanced technology for earthquake resistance. It is also our duty and responsibility to do our best to save the disaster," the official said.
Drone fog suppression test
On March 4, 2014, Ma Yongsheng, deputy of the National People's Congress and chairman of AVIC Aerospace, revealed that the development of the flexible wing UAV developed by AVIC Aerospace has made significant progress, and the first round of anti-fog test will be conducted at the airport and port.
It is understood that the flexible wing drone is a low-speed drone that provides lift for the wing with a stamped wing umbrella. It is an unmanned powered wing umbrella with an automatic control system that can take off, cruise and accurately land. It can carry a flight with a payload of approximately 40% of the take-off weight.
The soft wing drone has the following advantages as a fog elimination platform:
First, the payload is large. Due to the greater lift provided by the large-area stamped parachute, the fixed-wing drone with the same take-off weight has a payload that is approximately three times that of a fixed-wing aircraft. Since the anti-fog operation requires a larger catalyst weight, a larger payload represents a landing and can carry more catalyst and weather detection equipment to operate. SYW-1 can carry about 80KG, and the payload of future designs can reach up to 700KG.
The second is safe and reliable. The soft-wing drone has its own gliding and descending function. Even in the case of power failure and engine stop and no power, it can rely on the paraglider to glides and land slowly without causing damage to equipment and ground personnel.
Third, the flight time is long. You can leave it empty for more than 3 hours.
The fourth is easy to operate. It can be taken off at a distance of 50 meters, and the attitude of the airwork is easy to adjust and the landing is stable.
Fifth, the cost is low. Initially, the procurement cost and maintenance cost of the flexible wing drone are 1/3~1/5 of the same-size fixed-wing UAV or unmanned helicopter. The cost of use is 1/10, and it is not necessary. Complex maintenance work.
The soft-wing UAV developed by AVIC Aerospace is the first type of parachute drone in China. During the project development process, researchers have fully borrowed the unique mature technology of Aerospace and utilized the company's professional design methods and processing equipment. The design and production of the prototype was completed. Project experts said that this type of UAV can be used for power line inspection, agricultural planting, rescue and disaster relief, aerial aerial survey and other fields in addition to fogging operations. With the series of R&D and commercial application of the flexible wing UAV platform project, it is bound to play a major role in many national economic construction and people's livelihood areas.
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